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Country Offices Directory. He was tried in Turkey and sentenced to life imprisonment. The PKK has since gone through a series of name changes. In ETA operatives killed Franco's apparent successor, Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, by planting an underground bomb under his habitual parking spot outside a Madrid church. Between and , during a period known as the Troubles , the group conducted an armed campaign , including bombings, gun attacks, assassinations and even a mortar attack on 10 Downing Street.
Inspired by Che Guevara , Maoist socialism, and the Vietcong , the group sought to raise awareness of the Vietnamese and Palestinian independence movements through kidnappings, taking embassies hostage, bank robberies, assassinations, bombings, and attacks on U.
The group is best known for 's " German Autumn ". The group carried out a series of bombings and kidnappings until Curcio and Franceschini were arrested in the mids. Their successor as leader, Mario Moretti , led the group toward more militarized and violent actions, including the kidnapping of former Prime Minister Aldo Moro on March 16, Moro was killed 56 days later.
This led to an all-out assault on the group by Italian law enforcement and security forces and condemnation from Italian left-wing radicals and even imprisoned ex-leaders of the Brigades. The group lost most of its social support and public opinion turned strongly against it.
Members of these groups carried out a handful of assassinations before almost all were arrested in Laporte was killed a week later. In Colombia several paramilitary and guerrilla groups formed during the s and afterwards. While the ELN and FARC were originally left wing revolutionary groups and the AUC was originally a right-wing paramilitary, all have conducted numerous attacks on civilians and civilian infrastructure and engaged in the drug trade.
Over the decade that followed the group used bombings and targeted killings of civilians and police in pursuit of an independent Puerto Rico. The Weather Underground a. Weathermen leaders, inspired by China's Maoists , the Black Panthers , and the student revolts in France , sought to raise awareness of its revolutionary anti-capitalist and anti- Vietnam War platform by destroying symbols of government power. From to the Weathermen bombed corporate offices, police stations, and Washington government sites such as the Pentagon.
After the end of the Vietnam War in , most of the group disbanded. The Japanese Red Army was founded by Fusako Shigenobu in Japan in and attempted to overthrow the Japanese government and start a world revolution. In Kenya, because of the seeming ongoing failure of the Kenyan African Union to obtain political reforms from the British through peaceful means, radical activists within the KAU set up a splinter group and organised a more militant kind of nationalism. The Mau Mau carried out attacks on political opponents, loyalist villages, raiding white settler farms and destroying livestock.
The British colonial administration declared a state of emergency and British forces were sent to Kenya. Founded in , Umkhonto we Sizwe MK was the military wing of the African National Congress ; it waged a guerrilla campaign against the South African apartheid regime and was responsible for many bombings.
The South African government subsequently banned the group after classifying it as a terrorist organization. MK's first leader was Nelson Mandela , who was tried and imprisoned for the group's acts. In the s and s, Islamic militancy in pursuit of religious and political goals increased, [ citation needed ] many militants drawing inspiration from Iran's Islamic Revolution. This period also saw the rise of what is sometimes categorized as Single issue terrorism. If terrorism is the extension of domestic politics by other means, just as war is for diplomacy, then this represents the extension of pressure groups into violent action.
Notable examples that grow in this period are Anti-abortion terrorism and Environmental terrorism. The Contras were a counter-revolutionary militia formed in to oppose Nicaragua's Sandinista government. The Catholic Institute for International Relations asserted the following about contra operating procedures in The April 19, , Oklahoma City bombing was directed at the U.
Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City claimed lives and left over people injured. Inspired by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and the Iranian revolution , the group originally sought an Islamic revolution in Lebanon [ citation needed ] and has long fought for the withdrawal of Israeli forces from Lebanon. Led by Sheikh Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah since , the group has captured Israeli soldiers and carried out missile attacks and suicide bombings against Israeli targets.
Egyptian Islamic Jihad a. The group was formed in as an umbrella organization for militant student groups which were formed after the leadership of the Muslim Brotherhood renounced violence. In , the group assassinated Egyptian president Anwar Sadat. On November 17, , in what became known as the Luxor massacre , it attacked tourists at the Temple of Hatshepsut Deir el-Bahri ; six men dressed as police officers machine-gunned 58 Japanese and European vacationers and four Egyptians.
Kennedy International Airport , was destroyed mid flight over the Scottish town of Lockerbie , killing people, including 11 on the ground. On January 31, , Libyan Abdelbaset al-Megrahi was convicted by a panel of three Scottish judges of bombing the flight, and was sentenced to 27 years imprisonment. In , Libya offered financial compensation to victims' families in exchange for lifting of UN and U. In Megrahi was granted leave to appeal against his conviction, and in August was released on compassionate grounds by the Scottish executive due to his terminal cancer.
The first Palestinian suicide attack took place in when a member of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad ignited a bomb onboard Tel Aviv bus , killing 16 people. Sheikh Ahmed Yassin , Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi and Mohammad Taha of the Palestinian wing of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood had created Hamas in , at the beginning of the First Intifada , an uprising against Israeli rule in the Palestinian Territories which mostly consisted of civil disobedience but sometimes escalated into violence.
Hamas is designated as a terrorist organization by the European Union ,   Canada,  Israel, Japan,      and the United States. On February 25, , Baruch Goldstein , an American-born Israeli physician, perpetrated the Cave of the Patriarchs massacre in the city of Hebron , Goldstein shot and killed between 30 and 54 Muslim worshippers inside the Ibrahimi Mosque within the Cave of the Patriarchs , and wounded another to Aum Shinrikyo , now known as Aleph, was a Japanese religious group founded by Shoko Asahara in as a yogic meditation group. None were voted in, and the group began to militarize.
Between and , the group attempted several apparently unsuccessful violent attacks using the methods of biological warfare , using botulin toxin and anthrax spores. In May , Asahara and other senior leaders were arrested and the group's membership rapidly decreased. In , Air India Flight flying from Canada was blown up by a bomb while in Irish airspace, killing people, including Canadian citizens, mostly of Indian birth or descent, and 22 Indians.
The crash occurred within an hour of the fatal Narita Airport Bombing which also originated from Canada without the passenger for the bag that exploded on the ground. Evidence from the explosions, witnesses and wiretaps of militants pointed to an attempt to actually blow up two airliners simultaneously by members of the Babbar Khalsa Khalistan movement militant group based in Canada to punish India for attacking the Golden Temple.
The Iranian Embassy siege took place in , after a group of six armed men stormed the Iranian embassy in South Kensington , London. This response set the tone for how Western governments would respond to terrorism. Replacing an era of negotiation with one of military intervention. Chechen separatists, led by Shamil Basayev , carried out several attacks on Russian targets between and When Russian special forces attempted to free the hostages, civilians and 25 Russian troops were killed.
click here Major events after the September 11 attacks in include the Moscow Theatre Siege , the Istanbul bombings , the Madrid train bombings , the Beslan school hostage crisis , the London bombings , the October New Delhi bombings , the Mumbai Hotel Siege , and the Norway attacks. The Moscow theatre hostage crisis was the seizure of a crowded Moscow theatre on 23 October by some 40 to 50 armed Chechens who claimed allegiance to the Islamist militant separatist movement in Chechnya.